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  Publications and Information 

Here is a listing of Internet links and information about trapping and related issues.

Wild Illinois History
“Wild Illinois History” helps students in grades 3 through 5 focus on early French exploration, along with river and settlement geography. The website presents facts on history, culture, biology and wildlife management. Furbearing mammals are a prime focus, due to their economic value then and now. For teachers, “Wild Illinois History” offers lesson plans, activities, photos, posters and correlations to Illinois Learning Standards.

Furbearers of Illinois DVD
Illinois' furbearer populations are thriving. From badgers to skunks, this 14-minute DVD informs viewers about all of the furbearer species that roam Illinois rural, suburban and urban settings. It's an informative presentation for schools, 4-H groups, scouts or any group interested in learning about Illinois wildlife. To order, contact the IL DNR Clearinghouse listed here or at the address below.

Brochure and Video: Fur Hunting and Trapping in Illinois (PDF)
Fur Hunting and Trapping BrochureFor some people, hunting, trapping and the use of fur are controversial issues. Often the debate is accompanied by misinformation and misunderstanding on both sides. This brochure takes a closer look at fur hunting and trapping, and what they mean to the people—and wildlife—of Illinois.

To order Fur Hunting and Trapping in Illinois brochure and DVD, contact:

Illinois Department of Natural Resources Clearinghouse
One Natural Resources Way
Springfield, IL 62702-1271

217-782-7498
dnr.clearing@illinois.gov

Illinois DNR Policies and Regulations
Hunting and trapping are controlled through strict, scientifically based policies, regulations and Best Management Practices. Learn more about them here.

Illinois DNR Publications
This includes a media clearinghouse of publications, Outdoor Illinois magazine and various regulations booklets.

Illinois Trapper and Other Safety Education Courses
First-time trappers under the age of 18 are required to pass a trapper education course before they can buy a trapping license. Check out this and other safety education courses.

The Bobcat in Illinois
Management of furbearing mammals is guided by scientific studies.  This publication presents an easy-to-read version of bobcat ecology in southern Illinois.


The Beaver in Illinois
The Beaver in Illinois Management of furbearing mammals is guided by scientific studies. This publication describes the ecology of beavers in southern and east-central Illinois


Living With Wildlife in Illinois
Many species of wildlife are welcome visitors to our properties, but some can wear out their welcome.  This resource offers tips on identifying wildlife, coexisting with them and resolving some of the more serious problems that crop up from time to time.

Illinois Trapper Education Course
In Illinois, those under 18 years of age must pass a trapper education course before they are allowed to buy a trapping license. You can meet half of this requirement by completing this online course, which focuses on regulations, ethics and basic techniques.


Illinois Resident’s Opinions of Trapping, Fur Hunting, and Furbearer Management (PDF)
Understanding residents’ opinions helps DNR manage for a healthy balance between the needs of people and wildlife.  This report presents findings of a telephone survey conducted on behalf of DNR in January 2009. 

Related Articles:

Scientific articles about Illinois furbearers

Badger
Ver Steeg, B., and R.E. Warner.  2000.  The distribution of badgers (Taxidea taxus) in Illinois.  Transactions of the Illinois State Academy of Science 93:151-163.*

Beaver
Crawford, J.C., Z. Liu, T.A. Nelson, C.K. Nielsen, and C.K. Bloomquist.  2008.  Microsatellite analysis of mating and kinship in beavers (Castor canadensis).  Journal of Mammalogy 89:575-581

Crawford, J., Z. Liu, T. Nelson, C. Nielsen, and C. Bloomquist.  2007.  Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci in the beaver (Castor canadensis).  Molecular Ecology Notes.  Eastern Illinois University, Charleston, Illinois, USA.  3pp.

McNew, L.B., Jr., C.K. Nielsen, and C.K. Bloomquist.  2007.  Use of snares to live-capture beaver.  Human-Wildlife Conflicts 1:106-111.*

McNew, L.B., Jr., and A. Woolf.  2005.  Dispersal patterns and survival of juvenile beavers in Southern Illinois.  American Midland Naturalist 154:217-228.*

McNew, L.B., T.A. Nelson, and S.T. McTaggart.  2003.   Prevalence of Giardia intestinalis in Illinois beavers.  Transactions of the Illinois State Academy of Science 96:113-118.*

McTaggart, S.T., and T.A. Nelson.  2003.  Composition and demographics of beaver (Castor canadensis) colonies in central Illinois.  American Midland Naturalist 150:139-150.*

Woolf, A., T. Nelson, and R. Bluett.  2003.  Beaver relative abundance in southern Illinois watersheds.  Transactions of the Illinois State Academy of Science 96:135-144.*

Bobcat
Kolowski, J.M., and C.K. Nielsen.  2008.  Using Penrose distance to identify potential risk of wildlife-vehicle collisions.  Biological Conservation 141:1119-1128.*

McDonald, P.T., C.K. Nielsen, T.J. Oyana, and W. Sun.  2008.  Modelling habitat overlap among sympatric mesocarnivores in southern Illinois, USA.  Ecological modelling 215:276-286.

Nielsen, C.K., and A. Woolf.  2003.  Dispersal of juvenile male bobcats (Lynx rufus) in southern Illinois.  Transactions of the Illinois State Academy of Science 96:313-318.*

Nielsen, C.K., and A. Woolf.  2002.  Survival of unexploited bobcats in southern Illinois.  Journal of Wildlife Management 66:833-838.*

Nielsen, C.K., and A. Woolf.  2002.  Habitat-relative abundance relationship for bobcats in southern Illinois.  Wildlife Society Bulletin 30:222-230.*

Woolf, A., C.K. Nielsen, T. Weber, and T.J. Gibbs-Kieninger.  2002.  Statewide modeling of bobcat, Lynx rufus, habitat in Illinois, USA.  Biological Conservation 104:191-198.*

Nielsen, C.K., and A. Woolf.  2001.  Spatial organization of bobcats (Lynx rufus) in southern Illinois.  American Midland Naturalist 146:43-52.*

Woolf, A., C.K. Nielsen, and T. Gibbs Kieninger.  2000.  Status and distribution of the bobcat (Lynx rufus) in Illinois.  Transactions of the Illinois State Academy of Science 93:165-173.*

Woolf, A., and G.F. Hubert, Jr.  1998.  Status and management of bobcats in the United States over three decades: 1970sB1990s.  Wildlife Society Bulletin.  26:287-293.*

Coyote
McDonald, P.T., C.K. Nielsen, T.J. Oyana, and W. Sun.  2008.  Modelling habitat overlap among sympatric mesocarnivores in southern Illinois, USA.  Ecological modelling 215:276-286.

Mahan, B.R., and E.C. Mahan.  2007.  Demographics of coyotes (Canis latrans) during the late 1970s and 1990s in southwestern Illinois.  Transactions of the Illinois State Academy of Science 100:251-257.*

Morey, P.S., E.M. Gese, and S.D. Gehrt.  2007.  Spatial and temporal variation in the diet of coyotes in the Chicago metropolitan area.  American Midland Naturalist 158:147-161.

Nelson, T.A., D.G. Gregory, C. Burroughs, and J.R. Laursen.  2007.  Prevalence of lungworms in Illinois coyotes.  Transactions of the Illinois State Academy of Science 100:89-95.*

Gehrt, S.D., and S. Prange.  2006.  Interference competition between coyotes and raccoons: a test of the mesopredator release hypothesis.  Behavioral Ecology 17:204-214.*

Van Deelen, T.R., and T.E. Gosselink.  2006.  Coyote survival on a row-crop agriculture landscape.  Canadian Journal of Zoology 84:1630-1636.*

Nelson, T.A., and D.M. Lloyd.  2005.  Demographics and condition of coyotes in Illinois.  American Midland Naturalist 153:418-427.*

Gosselink, T.E., T.R. Van Deelen, R.E. Warner, and M.G. Joselyn.  2003.  Temporal habitat partitioning and spatial use of coyotes and red foxes in east-central Illinois.  Journal of Wildlife Management 67:90-103.*

Nelson, T.A., D.G. Gregory, and J.R. Laursen.  2003.  Canine heartworms in coyotes in Illinois.  Journal of Wildlife Diseases 39:593-599.*

Hubert, G.F., Jr., L.L. Hungerford, and R.D. Bluett.  1997.  Injuries to coyotes captured in modified foothold traps.  Wildlife Society Bulletin 25:858-863.*

Cypher, B.L.  1993.  Food item use by coyote pups at Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge, Illinois.  Transactions of the Illinois State Academy of Science 86:133-137.

Cypher, B.L., A. Woolf, and D.C. Yancy.  1993.  Summer food habits of coyotes at Union County Conservation Area, Illinois.  Transactions of the Illinois State Academy of Science 86:145-152.

Kick, T.J., G.F. Hubert, Jr., and R.D. Andrews.  1984.  Heartworms (Dirofilaria immitis) in coyotes (Canis latrans) in Illinois.  Transactions of the Illinois State Academy of Science 77:127-134.*

Gray fox
Mahan, B.R., G.F. Hubert, Jr., and B. Bluett.  2005.  Population characteristics of the gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) in southern Illinois during the late 1970s.  Transactions of the Illinois State Academy of Science 98:55-

62.Hubert, G.F., Jr., T.J. Kick, and R.D. Andrews.  1982.  Dirofilaria immitis in gray foxes in Illinois.  Transactions of the Illinois State Academy of Science 75:149-152.*

Long-tailed weasel
Richter, S.M., and E.M. Schauber.  2006.  Distribution of the long-tailed weasel (Mustela frenata) in Illinois.  Transactions of the Illinois State Academy of Science 99:153-160.*

Mink
Bluett, R.D., A.C. Hulin, P.D. Hubert, and W.L. Anderson.  2006.  Monitoring the status of mink (Mustela vison) in Illinois.  Transactions of the Illinois State Academy of Science 98:51-61.  (Note: printer=s errors corrected in Volume 99, 2006)*

Halbrook, R.S., A. Woolf, G.F. Hubert, Jr., S. Ross, and W.E. Braselton.  1996.  Contaminant concentrations in Illinois mink and otter.  Ecotoxicology 5:103-114.*

Opossum
Gehrt, S.D., G.F. Hubert, Jr., and J.A. Ellis.  2006.  Extrinsic effects on long-term population trends of Virginia opossums and striped skunks at a large spatial scale.  American Midland Naturalist 155:168-180.*

Prange, S., and S.D. Gehrt.  2004.  Changes in mesopredator-community structure in response to urbanization.  Canadian Journal of Zoology 82:1804-1817.*

Hubert, G.F., Jr., G.K. Wollenberg, L.L. Hungerford, and R.D. Bluett.  1999.  Evaluation of injuries to Virginia opossums captured in the EGGJ trap.  Wildlife Society Bulletin 27:301-305.*

Nixon, C.M., J.B. Sullivan, T. Esker, and R. Koerkenmeier.  1994.  Notes on the life history of opossums in west-central Illinois.  Transactions of the Illinois State Academy of Science 87:187-193.*

Predation of songbirds by mammals
Hoffman, C.L., and E.J. Heske.  2003.  Relative abundance of mammalian nest predators at Jim Edgar Panther Creek State Fish and Wildlife Area, Cass County, Illinois.  Transactions of the Illinois State Academy of Science 96:55-65.

Schmidt, K.A.  2003.  Nest predation and population declines in Illinois songbirds: a case for mesopredator effects.  Conservation Biology 17:1141-1150.

Heske, E.J., S.K. Robinson, and J.D. Brawn.  1999.  Predator activity and predation on songbird nests on forest-field edges in east-central Illinois.  Landscape Ecology 14:345-354.*

Raccoon
Barding, E.E., and T.A. Nelson.  2008.  Raccoons use habitat edges in northern Illinois.  American Midland Naturalist 159:394-402.

Nielsen, C. K., A. Defore, and E. Bade.  2007.  Survey of Baylisascaris procyonis and canine distemper virus in southern Illinois raccoons.  Transactions of the Illinois State Academy of Science 100:169-176.

Newbury, R.A., and T.A. Nelson.  2007.  Habitat selection and movements of raccoons on a grassland reserve managed for imperiled birds.  Journal of Mammalogy 88:1082-1089.

Roy Nielsen, C.L., and C.K. Nielsen.  2007.  Multiple paternity and relatedness in southern Illinois raccoons (Procyon lotor).  Journal of Mammalogy 88:441-447.*        

Wilson, S.E., and C.K. Nielsen.  2007.  Habitat characteristics of raccoon daytime resting sites in southern Illinois.  American Midland Naturalist 157:175-186.*

Gehrt, S.D., and S. Prange.  2006.  Interference competition between coyotes and raccoons: a test of the mesopredator release hypothesis.  Behavioral Ecology 17:204-214.*

Prange, S., T. Jordan, C. Hunter, and S.D. Gehrt.  2006.  New radiocollars for the detection of proximity among individuals.  Wildlife Society Bulletin 34:1333-1344.

Page, L. Kristen, S.D. Gehrt, K.K. Titcombe, and N.P. Robinson.  2005.  Measuring prevalence of raccoon roundworm (Baylisascaris procyonis): a comparison of common techniques.  Wildlife Society Bulletin 33:1406-1412.*

Prange, S., and S.D. Gehrt.  2004.  Changes in mesopredator-community structure in response to urbanization.  Canadian Journal of Zoology 82:1804-1817.*

Prange, S., S.D. Gehrt, and E.P. Wiggers.  2004.  Influences of anthropogenic resources on raccoon (Procyon lotor) movements and spatial distribution.  Journal of Mammalogy 85:483-490.*

Prange, S., S.D. Gehrt, and E.P. Wiggers.  2003.  Demographic factors contributing to high raccoon densities in urban landscapes.  Journal of Wildlife Management 67:324-333.*

Gehrt, S.D.  2002.  Evaluation of spotlight and road-kill surveys as indicators of local raccoon abundance.  Wildlife Society Bulletin 30:449-456.*

Gehrt, S.D., G.F. Hubert, Jr., and J.A. Ellis.  2002.  Long-term population trends of raccoons in Illinois.  Wildlife Society Bulletin 30:457-463.*

Gehrt, S.D., L.L. Hungerford, and S. Hatten.  2001.  Drug effects on recaptures of raccoons.  Wildlife Society Bulletin 29:833-837.*

Levengood, J.M, and G.F. Hubert, Jr.  2001.  Concentrations of selected elements in Illinois raccoons.  Transactions of the Illinois State Academy of Science 94:89-99.*

Nixon, C.M., J.B. Sullivan, T.L. Esker, R.G. Koerkenmeir, and G. Hubert, Jr.  2001.  Den use by raccoons in westcentral Illinois.  Transactions of the Illinois State Academy of Science 94:59-65.*

Mitchell, M.A., L.L. Hungerford, C. Nixon, T. Esker, J. Sullivan, R. Koerkenmeier, and J.P. Dubey.  1999.  Serologic survey for selected infectious disease agents in raccoons from Illinois.  Journal of Wildlife Diseases 35:347-355.*

Mankin, P.C., C.M. Nixon, J.B. Sullivan, T.L. Esker, R.G. Koerkenmeier, and L.L. Hungerford.  1999.  Raccoon (Procyon lotor) survival in west-central Illinois. Transactions of the Illinois State Academy of Science 92:247-256.*

Mosillo, M., E.J. Heske, and J.D. Thompson.  1999.  Survival and movements of translocated raccoons in northcentral Illinois.  Journal of Wildlife Management 63:278-286.*

Hubert, G.F. Hubert, Jr., L.L. Hungerford, G. Proulx, R.D. Bluett, and L. Bowman.  1996.  Evaluation of two restraining traps to capture raccoons.  Wildlife Society Bulletin 24:699-708.*

Stevens, J., C. Nixon, and J. Suver.  1995.  Some aspects of raccoon life history in Lee County, Illinois.  Transactions of the Illinois State Academy of Science 88:49-59.*

Birch, G.L., G.A. Feldhamer, and W.G. Dyer.  1994.  Helminths of the gastrointestinal tract of raccoons in southern Illinois with implications of Baylisascaris procyonis occurrence.  Transactions of the Illinois State Academy of Science 87:165-170.

Red fox
McDonald, P.T., C.K. Nielsen, T.J. Oyana, and W. Sun.  2008.  Modelling habitat overlap among sympatric mesocarnivores in southern Illinois, USA.  Ecological modelling 215:276-286.

Gosselink, T.E., T.R. Van Deelen, R.E. Warner, and P.C. Mankin.  2007.  Survival and cause-specific mortality of red foxes in agricultural and urban areas of Illinois.  Journal of Wildlife Management 71:1862-1873.*

Gosselink, T.E., T.R. Van Deelen, R.E. Warner, and M.G. Joselyn.  2003.  Temporal habitat partitioning and spatial use of coyotes and red foxes in east-central Illinois.  Journal of Wildlife Management 67:90-103.*

Lavin, S.R., T.R. Van Deelen, P.W. Brown, S.H. Ambrose, and R.E. Warner.  2003.  Prey use of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in urban and rural areas of Illinois.  Canadian Journal of Zoology 81:1070-1082.

Hubert, G.F., Jr., T.J. Kick, and R.D. Andrews.  1980.  Dirofilaria immitis in red foxes in Illinois.  Journal of Wildlife Diseases 16:229-232.*

River otter
Bluett, R.D., C.K. Nielsen, R.W. Gottfried, C.A. Miller, and A. Woolf.  2004.  Status of the river otter (Lontra canadensis) in Illinois, 1998-2004.  Transactions of the Illinois State Academy of Science 97:209-217.*

Bluett, R.D., E.A. Anderson, G.F. Hubert, Jr., G.W. Kruse, and S.E. Lauzon.  1999.  Reintroduction and status of the river otter (Lutra canadensis) in Illinois.  Transactions of the Illinois State Academy of Science 92:69-78.*

Halbrook, R.S., A. Woolf, G.F. Hubert, Jr., S. Ross, and W.E. Braselton.  1996.  Contaminant concentrations in Illinois mink and otter.  Ecotoxicology 5:103-114.*

Striped skunk
Prange, S., and S.D. Gehrt.  2007.  Response of skunks to a simulated increase in coyote activity.  Journal of Mammalogy 88:1040-1049.*

Gehrt, S.D., G.F. Hubert, Jr., and J.A. Ellis.  2006.  Extrinsic effects on long-term population trends of Virginia opossums and striped skunks at a large spatial scale.  American Midland Naturalist 155:168-180.*

Gehrt, S.D.  2005.  Seasonal survival and cause-specific mortality of urban and rural striped skunks in the absence of rabies.  Journal of Mammalogy 86:1164-1170.*

Prange, S., and S.D. Gehrt.  2004.  Changes in mesopredator-community structure in response to urbanization.  Canadian Journal of Zoology 82:1804-1817.*

Wildlife damage management
Bluett, R.D., G.F. Hubert, Jr., and C.A. Miller.  2003.  Regulatory oversight and activities of wildlife control operators in Illinois.  Wildlife Society Bulletin 31:104-116.

*Partial funding provided by hunters and trappers through either the Federal Aid in Wildlife Restoration or Illinois State Furbearer Fund programs.

Hunting and Trapping Furbearers

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