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 Illinois

  Wildflowers  

Spring Woodland Wildflowers

Spring Woodland Wildflowers of Illinois

Wild GingerWild Ginger
Asarum canadense
Plant names are derived from a variety of sources including physical properties such as appearance or odor. Wild ginger is named for its flavoring properties.

 

Blue VioletBlue Violet
Viola pratincola
This native violet is Illinois' state flower. Of the 22 kinds of native violets in our state the blue violet can be found on our poster. The purple to blue flowers of the blue violet may be seen blooming in every Illinois county from March to May.

 

Smooth Yellow VioletSmooth Yellow Violet
Viola pubescens var. eriocarpa
The smooth yellow violet blooms from April to May. Its yellow flowers may be seen in woodlands in every Illinois county.

 

HepaticaHepatica
Hepatica nobilis var. acuta
Hepatica or liver leaf has leaves that resemble the shape of an animal's liver. Hepatica may be seen blooming in rich Illinois woodlands from March to May.

 

Blue-eyed MaryBlue-eyed Mary
Collinsia verna
When present, blue-eyed Mary is an abundant spring wildflower of rich woods throughout the state. This member of the snapdragon family has three blue petals and two white petals in each flower.

 

ToothwortToothwort
Dentaria laciniata
Toothwort gets its name from its leaves, which have edges that look like ragged teeth. Toothwort blooms from February to May statewide in Illinois woodlands.

 

Spring BeautySpring Beauty
Claytonia virginica
Spring beauty blooms in woodlands, fields and older residential areas from March through May. This common plant is found throughout Illinois. White flower petals are marked with pink veins.

 

BloodrootBloodroot
Sanguinaria canadensis
Bloodroot gets its name from the blood-like sap of its root. The flower of bloodroot grows on a stalk well above its leaf. The white flower may be seen on this plant from March to April in woods throughout Illinois.

 

White Trout LilyWhite Trout Lily
Erythronium albidum
The white trout lily is commonly called the white dog-tooth violet. This Illinois spring wildflower grows in woods and occasionally in fields.

 

Showy OrchisShowy Orchis
Galearis spectabilis
Showy orchis is pollinated by hummingbirds whose tongues are long enough to feed on the nectar found in the long tubes of the flower, called spurs. Insects with long mouthparts, such as butterflies and moths, also act as pollinators for flowers with spurs.

 

Yellow BellwortYellow Bellwort
Uvularia grandiflora
Plant names are derived from a variety of sources including physical properties such as appearance or odor. Bellwort is named after the appearance of its flower. Yellow bellwort may be found statewide in Illinois woods. It blooms April through May.

 

Wake RobinWake Robin
Trillium recurvatum
The trillium is also called Wake Robin. It has three petals, three sepals and three leaves.

 

GoldensealGoldenseal
Hydrastis canadensis
In Illinois woodlands, the goldenseal plant is easily seen in April and May. Flowers are conspicuous because of the numerous yellow-tipped stamens and lack of petals. This plant may grow to a height of 12 to 14 inches.

 

ButtercupButtercup
Ranunculus hispidus
Plant names are derived from a variety of sources including physical properties such as appearance or odor. Buttercup is named after the appearance of its flower. The buttercup grows in the southern three-fourths of Illinois. It yellow flowers appear from April through May.

 

Dwarf LarkspurDwarf Larkspur
Delphinium tricorne
Insects with long mouthparts, such as butterflies and moths, act as pollinators for flowers with long tubes, called spurs. The larkspur flowers have spurs. The dark purple flowers of the dwarf larkspur may be seen blooming in woodlands in the southern four-fifths of Illinois from April to June.

 

Rue AnemoneRue Anemone
Thalictrum thalictroides
This member of the buttercup family has leaves with three lobes and small white or pink flowers. It blooms in April and May and is found in dry or moist open woods throughout Illinois.

 

Dutchman's BreechesDutchman's Breeches
Dicentra cucullaria
Plant names are derived from a variety of sources including physical properties such as appearance or odor. Dutchman's breeches has blossoms that resemble breeches or trousers. Dutchman's breeches grows statewide in Illinois woodlands. Its white flowers appear in April and May.

 

Jack-in-the-PulpitJack-in-the-Pulpit
Arisaema triphyllum
Amimals like the eastern chipmunk and many types of birds eat and scatter seeds of some of the berry-producing plants like Jack-in-the-pulpit. In this manner plants have developed the means to move from one area to another, simply at the expense of a "helper" (host) animal. Jack-in-the-pulpit blooms from April to May in woodlands throughout Illinois. Its flowering sturctures are enclosed in a spathe, or covering with a flap on the top.

 

Common PhloxCommon Phlox
Phlox divaricatus
Plant names are derived from a variety of sources including physical properties such as appearance or odor. Common phlox or "sweet William" has flowers with a very sweet odor. Common phlox grows in woodlands in the southern three-fourths of Illinois. Its light purple flowers appear from May through June.

Jacob's LadderJacob's Ladder
Polemonium reptans
Plant names are derived from a variety of sources including physical properties such as appearance or odor. Jacob's ladder has leaves that resemble a ladder. Jacob's ladder's purple flowers may be seen in Illinois woodlands from April through June.

 

BluebellsBluebells
Mertensia virginica
Plant names are derived from a variety of sources including physical properties such as appearance or odor. Bluebells are named after the appearance of their flower. This plant blooms from March through June in woodlands throughout Illinois.

 

Wild GeraniumWild Geranium
Geranium maculatum
Wild geranium is abundant in rich woodlands in Illinois. Characteristics to use in identifying the plant are a one to two foot hairy stem and pairs of five-parted, toothed leaves that may measure four to five inches across. In April and May, pink or purplish flowers appear. As the season progresses, the leaves are often spotted with white.

 

ColumbineColumbine
Aquilegia canadensis
Columbine is pollinated by hummingbirds whose tongues are long enough to feed on the nectar found in the long tubes of the flower, called spurs.

 

Blue CohoshBlue Cohosh
Caulopyllum thalictroides
Two or three blue-green leaflets grow along the singular stem of the blue cohosh. Yellow-green flowers appear on the end of the stem in a cluster. In the fall, dark blue berry-like fruits appear.

Yellow Lady's-slipper OrchidYellow Lady's-slipper Orchid
Cypripedium pubescens
Plant names are derived from a variety of sources including physical properties such as appearance or odor. Yellow lady's-slipper is named after the appearance of its flower. This plant is not commonly found in Illinois but does occut at scattered locations throughout the state. It blooms from April to May.

 

Doll's EyesDoll's Eyes
Actaea pachypoda
This plant blooms from April through June, with fruits appearing from July through October. It is called "doll's eyes" because each berry-like, white fruit has a dark spot, giving it the appearance of the eye from a toy doll.

 

Solomon's SealSolomon's Seal
Polygonatum commutatum
Amimals like the eastern chipmunk and many types of birds eat and scatter seeds of some of the berry-producing plants like Solomon's seal. In this manner plants have developed the means to move from one area to another, simply at the expense of a "helper" (host) animal. Solomon's seal blooms from April to June in woodlands in every Illinois county.

 

False Solomon's SealFalse Solomon's Seal
Smilacina racemosa
A spike of white or yellow flowers appears on the tip of the strong, unbranched stem of the false Solomon's seal. The plant may attain a height of three to five feet. Parallel veins on the leaves help show that this plant is in the lily family. Berries turn red in the fall.

 

White TrilliumWhite Trillium
Trillium flexipes
The trillium is a member of the lily family. This perennial plant has three triangular leaves and flowers with three green sepals and three white petals. Blooms appear in April and May.

 

Virginia WaterleafVirginia Waterleaf
Hydrophyllum virginianum
The leaves of the Virginia waterleaf are pinnately compound, and the stems are hairy. Blooms occur from April through July. This plant is found occasionally to commonly throughout the state. Its name comes from the fact that the leaves often have light green splotches or "water marks."

 

RedbudRedbud
Cercis canadensis
One of Illinois' earliest blooming trees, the redbud is considered by many people to be the harbinger of spring. The redbud tree is easily identified by its heart-shaped leaves and small purple-red flowers that are present from April through May. This tree may grow to 50 feet tall. Historically, redbud flowers were used as a source of vitamin C when eaten in salads, pancakes, breads and vegetable dishes.

Fragile Fern
Cystopteris protrusa
The fragile fern is found in moist woodlands in every Illinois county.

 

Maidenhair Fern
Adiantum pedatum
The maidenhair fern occurs in moist, shaded woodlands throughout Illinois. This primitive plant reproduces by spores instead of flowers and seeds.

 

[Spring Woodland Wildflowers of Illinois Poster]
[Northern Illinois Wetlands Poster]
[Summer Prairie Wildflowers and Grasses of Illinois Poster]

Invertebrates | Birds | Fish | Fungi | Mammals |
Reptiles & Amphibians
| Northern Illinois Wetland Plants |
Summer Prairie Wildflowers of Illinois


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